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Transfer of marine organisms: a challenge to the conservation of coastal biocenoses. ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT Dear Editor, We write concerning the scientific name for the Pacific oyster used by Aquaculture.An article in the 1 October issue (Ugalde et al. Proc. Stjepcevic J; Mandic C; Dragovic R, 1977. Crassostrea gigas. Salaun ML; Truchet M, 1996.  It originated from Japan, where it has been cultured for hundreds of years. The Molluscan fisheries of Alaska. Bouilly K; McCombie H; Leitao A; LapÃ¨gue S, 2004. Safari Hotel, Windhoek 29-30 October, 2002., Republic of Namibia: Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources. In: Menzel W, ed. Leloup E, 1980. In: Nosho TY, Chew KK, eds. Boudry P; Heurtebise S; LapÃ¨gue S, 2003. Alaska Aquaculture Conf., Sitka, Nov. 1987. Sci. Quaternary Research, 47(2):195-205. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Studies on prevention of the fouling oyster larvae from attaching to cultured bay scallop (Argopecten irradians, Lamarck) in Jincheng cultivation area of Laizhou Bay. Tech. Laing I; Lees DN; Page DJ; Henshilwood K, 2004. Orensanz JM, Schwindt E, Pastorino G, Bortolus A, Casas G, Darrigran G, Elias R, Lopez Gappa JJ, Obenat S, Pascual M, Penchaszadesh P, Piriz ML, Scarabino F, Spivak ED, Vallarino EA, 2002. Discovery of genes expressed in response Perkinsus marinus challenge in eastern (Crassostrea virginica) and Pacific (C. gigas) oysters. In: Mann R, ed. Garcia-Esquivel Z; Gonzalez-Gomez MA; Gomez-Togo DL; Galindo-Bect MS; Hernandez-Ayon M, 2000. Marine aquaculture in Denmark. OâFoighil D; Gaffney PM; Wilbur AE; Hilbish TJ, 1998. Scientific Name Crassostrea virginica. Syst. Tokohu J. Agric.  They can spend several weeks at this phase, which is dependent on water temperature, salinity, and food supply. Allan G; Masser M; Tidwell J; Massiani JP, 2001. Marine aquaculture in Denmark. ToxicitÃ© dâun dÃ©sherbant lâatrazine-simazine sur les jeunes stades larvaires de Crassostrea gigas et sur deux algues fourrages Isochrysis aff-galbana et Chaetoceros calcitrans. Bankok; Rome, NACA; FAO. Distribution, impacts and management. Guo X; Ford SE; Zhang F, 1999. The Pacific Oyster is also known as the 'Japanese' Oyster or the 'Miyagi' Oyster. FAO, 1972. Aquaculture development. Hatchery culture of bivalve molluscs. 15 (2) 514. Marit., 30(3-6):153-160. Possibility for commercial farming of edible molluscs in Boka Kotorska Bay and bringing a new species into farming. Guo XS; Allen SK, 1997. Aquacultural Engineering, 1(3):193-204; [12 fig.]. Identification of genes expressed in the gill tissue of the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) using expressed-sequence tags. In: J. Shellfish Res. Research on shellfish cultivation. Pacific oysters are found in estuaries as well as intertidal and subtidal zones where they are sessile. A multidisciplinary treatise.  Several crab species (Metacarcinus magister, Cancer productus, Metacarcinus gracilis), oyster drills, and starfish species (Pisater ochraceus, Pisater brevispinus, Evasterias troschelii, and Pycnopodia helianthoides) can cause severe impacts to oyster culture. Rinvenimento di Gryphaea sp. Māori names: Tio. Journal of Shellfish Research, 18(1):127-131. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence variation of presumed Crassostrea gigas and Crassostrea angulata specimens: a new oyster species in Hong Kong? Ecol., 212:149-172. Escapa M; Isacch JP; Daleo P; Alberti J; Irribarne O; Borges M; Dos Santos EP; Gagliardini DA; Lasta M, 2004. Robinson AM, 1998. Goulletquer P, 1997. New York: Plenum Press, 29-60. MÃ©moire de lâESPOL (Escuela Superior PolitÃ©cnica de Litoral), FIMCM (Facultad de Ingenieria Maritima y Ciencias del Mar). Cytogenetics of oysters. Friedman CS, Hedrick RP, 1995. In Washington State (USA), hybridization between Crassostrea sikamea and C. gigas occurred from 1960 to 1990, following a lack of broodstock management. In: Aquaculture '98, Book of Abstracts, 94 pp. Accessed 6 April 2005. Marine Biology, 131:497-503. Oyster and clam production in the outflow of marine fish ponds in Israel. Zool. Genetic polymorphism and trade-offs in the early life-history strategy of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg, 1795): a quantitative genetic study. Andrade CAP, 1995. Hybridization among Crassostrea species has been well studied and demonstrated in specific cases (NAS, 2004). J. Shellfish Res., 17(4):1243-1246. Pflum R, 1972. Biol. by MacKenzie C, Burrel V, Rosenfield A, Hobart W]. Haplosporidian infections of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg) in California and Japan.  The most significant introductions were to the Pacific Coast of the United States in the 1920s and to France in 1966. Online at www.intl-pag.org/pag/10/abstracts/PAGX_W15.html. Deslous-Paoli JM; HÃ©ral M, 1988. 218, 241 pp. DOI:10.1016/0044-8486(78)90031-5, Alaska Center for Conservation Science, 2017. Pacific oyster breeding in Hotham sound and Ladysmith harbour 1974-1975. Moreover, a highly valuable (and unaccountable) indirect economic impact concerns the lasting establishment of coastal communities in otherwise unfavourable rural areas, therefore playing a significant role in coastal management values. Mathers NF; Wilkins NP; Walne PR, 1974. Res., 33(1):42-49. Commer., NOAA Tech. Screening of Vibrio isolates to develop an experimental infection model in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Accessed 16 March 2005. McGoldrick DJ; Hedgecock D; English L; Baoprasertkul P; Ward RD, 2000. NOBANIS - Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheet - Crassostrea gigas. Report of the technical committee on fisheries research. Res. Res. In: J. Shellfish Res. On the environmental factors of oysters culturing farms and the growth rate of oysters. Thomson JM, 1951. Rome, 206 pp. In: MacKenzie C, Burrel V, Rosenfield A, Hobart W, eds. Journal of Shellfish Research, 22(1):21-30. In: Stud. NOAA Technical Report 127. J. Exp. De Min R; Vio E, 1998. 50 612-623. In: Rep. (TÃ©cnicas para el policultivo cultivo de ostras Crassostrea gigas y camaron Penaeus vannamei en Ecuador). Fish Farming International, 29(10):34-35. 297-309. London, UK: The MIT Press. Aquaculture, 15(3):195-218. In: Aquacul. (Molluschi del genere Crassostrea nell'Alto Adriatico). Yo JW; Hong JS, 1996. Simoes-Ramos MI; Andrade Nascimento I; Loyala Silva J, 1986. Respiratory time activity of the Japanese oyster Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg). 4 (4) 7-11. , Global production has increased from about 150 thousand tonnes in 1950 to 1.2 million tonnes in 1990. Aquaculture, 59:235-250. Molluscs as ecosystem engineers: the role of shell production in aquatic habitats. 128 (1/2), 63-86. In the UK, the Pacific Oyster is sometimes referred to as the 'Rock' Oyster. You Z; Xu S; Xie Q, 2000. In: Bull. Renault T; Cochennec N; Le Deuf RM; Chollet B, 1994. DOI:10.1016/S0044-8486(03)00443-5. Cytologia, 38:337-346. More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/. Report of the aquaculture business development seminar. The suggestion by Salvi et al. PerÃ¹, 36:65-72. Bel. Bogota, Colombia: De entidates y cent. We can offer live oysters, frozen oysters. Gene, 38:121-131. of coldest month < 0Â°C, mean warmest month > 10Â°C), D-shape larvae delayed - shell deformities and growth abnormality, herbicide inducing genetic aneuploidy and reducing larval survival rate, limited bioaccumulation - equilibrium between oyster concentration and that in surrounding seawater - no prolonged retention following cessation of dosage, * threshold considered as safe for human consumption, can resist short periods of time in anoxic conditions by closing valves and adapting physiology, DSP (mouse test <2 in 4 h); PSP (>80 Âµg/100 g meat); ASP (>20 Âµg/g meat), positive test resulting in public health problem, reduction in infiltration rate due to physical constraints - gill clogging, temperature-salinity combination is the driving factor for larval survival rate, bioaccumulation for oysters can reach up to 9000 Âµg/g in adult oysters living in polluted areas, Pelagic larvae dispersed by water currents, MOREST Research Program (survival rate selection), UK Non-Native Organism Risk Assessment Scheme - Crassostrea gigas, Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Subclass: Pteriomorphia, Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Order: Ostreoida, Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Unknown: Ostreoidea, Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Family: Ostreidae, Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Genus: Crassostrea, Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Species: Magallana gigas, benthic-pelagic interactions and likely food web modifications, transfer of parasites, diseases and pest species concomitant to oyster transfer (. Journal of Dalian Fisheries University, 17(4):272-278. Lihlou A, 1985. Bouilly K; Leitao A; McCombie H; LapÃ¨gue S, 2003. Alaskan shellfish culture laying in Wait to Expand. Journal of Molluscan Studies, 68(4):397-399. A model for sustainable management of shellfish polyculture in coastal bays. Production de lâAquaculture. Sci. Donghai Mar. FAO Database on Introduced Aquatic Species. by McKenzie CL Jr, Burnell VG Jr, Rosenfield A, Hobart WL]. Bull. Larvae often settle on the shell of adults, and great masses of oysters can grow together to form oyster reefs. Mar. Barber BJ, 1996. Zolotnitskij AP; Monina OB, 1992. J. Shellfish Res., 23(3):765-772. A distribution gap is closed - first record of naturally settled Pacific oysters C. gigas in the east Frisian Wadden Sea, North Sea. Hedgecock D; Lin JZ; deCola S; Haudenschild C; Meyer E; Manahan DT; Bowen B, 2002. Oysters meat extract: Separate bowel from shell > Cleaning > Crushed juice > Hydrolysis> Dry powder > Packing > Irradiated. Investigation of Zn, Cu, Cd and Hg concentrations in the oyster of Chi-ku, Tai-shi and Tapeng Bay, Southwestern Taiwan. UNDP/ FAO Regional Seafarming Development and Demonstration project. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 30(10):646-654. Inst. Mollusc culture in Ecuador. A review of molluscan cytogenetic information based on CISMOCH computerized index system for molluscan chromosomes. 32 (2), 215-220. Wilkinson WA, 1975. 149-164.  In some places in the world, though, it is considered by biosecurity, primary industry, and conservation departments and ministries to be an invasive species, where it is outcompeting native species, such as the Olympia oyster in Puget Sound, Washington; the rock oyster, Saccostrea commercialis, in the North Island of New Zealand; and the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, in the Wadden Sea. European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. 2 (2) 21. Mar. Culture of marine invertebrate animals. 14 pp. Australia/New South Wales: Pacific king oyster; Pacific rock oyster 17 4. Molluschi del genere Crassostrea nellâAlto Adriatico. Aquaculture in Corsica. http://www.europe-aliens.org/. Myth or reality ? Proceedings of the African seminar on aquaculture organised by the International Foundation for Science (IFS), Stockholm, Sweden, held in Kisumu, Kenya, 7-11 October 1985. Ralonde RL, 1998. Wallingford, UK: CABI, CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. 16(4-5):196-199. FAO, 1990. Rharbi N, Mohammed Ramdani, Abdellatif Berraho, 2003. Accessed 14 March 2005. https://accs.uaa.alaska.edu/wp-content/uploads/crassostreagigas.pdf, https://depts.washington.edu/oldenlab/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/Crassostrea-gigas_Harris.pdf, https://www.nobanis.org/globalassets/speciesinfo/c/crassostrea-gigas/crassostrea-gigas.pdf, https://secure.fera.defra.gov.uk/nonnativespecies/downloadDocument.cfm?id=50, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.  The main causes of mortality in the Pacific oysters are natural mortality (age), predators, disease, environmental conditions (ice, freak winds), competition for space (crowding of cultch), silting (sediment runoff from land), and cluster separation (process of breaking up clusters of oysters into as many individual oysters as possible). A few years later, Pacific oysters were the dominant species in the farms, as it grew three times faster than the rock oyster, produced a reliable and constant supply of spat, and had an already established market overseas. Gay M; Berthe F; Le Roux F, 2004. Crassostrea gigas (Pacific oyster); veliger larvae. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Res., 3-4:65-73. Occhipinti Ambrogi A, 2001. Meerunters., 52(3-4):301-308. In: Aust. Marine Bioinvasions Conference. J. Shellfish Res., 22(2):605-606. (Ãlaboration d'une stratÃ©gie d'Ã©levage de l'huitre Crassostrea gigas dans la lagune de Oualidia (Maroc) sur la base de l'Ã©tude des relations trophiques.). , Increasing numbers of frames for oysters to grow on has led to claims that the character of the beach is changed and that other users may be endangered.. Indirect economic impacts concern increasing coastal management costs to limit C. gigas reef expansion, and eradication costs. Invest. London, UK: The MIT Press. Orensanz JM; Schwindt E; Pastorino G; Bortolus A; Casas G; Darrigran G; Elias R; Lopez Gappa JJ; Obenat S; Pascual M; Penchaszadesh P; Piriz ML; Scarabino F; Spivak ED; Vallarino EA, 2002. Proceedings of the African seminar on aquaculture organised by the International Foundation for Science (IFS), Stockholm, Sweden, held in Kisumu, Kenya, 7-11 October 1985. Hunter C L, Stephenson M D, Tjeerdema R S, Crosby D G, Ichikawa G S, Goetzl J D, Paulson K S, Crane D B, Martin M, Newman J W, 1995. Survival, growth and glycogen content of Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg, 1793) at Madeira Island (subtropical Atlantic). Introductions of bivalve molluscs into the United Kingdom for commercial culture-case histories. ExpÃ©rience dâacclimatation de lâhuÃ®tre japonaise Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg) dans la lagune de Joal-Fadiouth. DIAS, 2005. Online at http://www-sci.pac.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/shelldis/. Biol. EPEEC, UNESCO (Division des Sciences de LA Mer). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 3(3):221-229. Utilization of Gracilaria chilensis (Rhodophyta: Gracilariaceae) as a biofilter in the depuration of effluents from tank cultures of fish, oysters, and sea urchins. Perspectives for the oyster culture at the Gulf of Nicoya. Similarly, natural hybridization between genetically differentiated populations of C. gigas and C. angulata was demonstrated (Huvet et al., 2004a). The Asia Regional Technical Guidelines on health management for responsible movement of live aquatic animals and the Beijing consensus and implementation strategy. Oyster and clam production in the outflow of marine fish ponds in Israel. 1. J. Shellfish Res., 15(2):285-290. J. Shellfish Res., 10(2):379-388. Invest. Re-introduction of oyster cultivation in the sluice-dock in Ostend, Belgium. Gametogenesis of eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica and Pacific oyster C. gigas in disease-endemic lower Chesapeake Bay. Qingdao Mar. 52 (4) 1-13. The fact that seed is widely available, and can be easily transferred, facilitates the use of those various environments, even in areas where no natural recruitment occurs. Langdon C; Jacobsen DP; Evans F, 2000. Bull. Online at http://massbay.mit.edu/exoticspecies/conferences/2001/index.html. Tohoku J. Agric. In: Relat. Henry JL; Davis G, 1983. In: The ecology of Crassostrea gigas in Australia, New Zealand, France and Washington State, [ed. No longer the pristine confines of the world ocean: a survey of exotic marine species in the southwestern Atlantic. Journal of Freshwater Res., 14:103-120. Europe, 137-164. Inst. Pacific oysters invade mussel beds in the European Wadden Sea. Copenhagen, Denmark: ICES, 33 pp. Second meeting of the technical working group, Ancud (Chiloe Island, Chile), [ed.  Yet, the eggs from a small sample of females (about six) are more commonly stripped from the gonads using Pasteur pipettes and fertilized by sperm from a similar number of males. Marit., 28: 167-175. Friedman CS, 1996. Res., 17:195-200. Cisneros R, 1996. World Mariculture Soc. MAFRI, 2001. Korea, 31(1):7-17. Washington Sea Grant, Olympia, 19 Feb., 1991. Ghisotti F, 1971. In: Proc. Mann R; Burreson EM; Baker PK, 1991. Biological adaptation of Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas, Thunberg) in a Moroccan lagoon at Oualida. Ore loading influences on heavy metal concentrations in Saldanha Bay. AFLP-based genetic linkage maps of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg). Aquaculture. In: J. Oceanol. Revue Agricole et SucriÃ¨re de lâIle Maurice, 53:111-131. Olsen AM, 1994. Sui X; Whang Z; Ma T; Chen C; Xu Q, 1997. Reasons of mass death-off in Pacific oyster cultured in Dalian sea shore. Introduced species and the Maine situation. Marais Maritimes et aquaculture, IFREMER, Actes de Colloque, 19:107-115. Chromosome number in nine families of marine pelecypods mollusks. In: MacKenzie CL, Burrell VG, Rosenfield A, Hobart WL, eds. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 4(1):9-13. DOI:10.1017/S0025315498000836. Genetics, 159(1):255-265. College Park, Maryland, USA: Maryland Sea Grant College, 25 pp. "National Research Council. Burreson EM, Mann R, Allen SK, 1994. In: LeppÃ¤koski E, Gollasch S, Olenin S, eds. nellâAlto Adriatico. Introduced species and the Maine situation. Baquiero EC, 1997. In: Exotic species in mariculture.  The majority was in China, which produced 84% of the global production. Allen SK; Downing SL; Chew KK, 1989. Merino SE, 2002. GonzÃ¡lez-TizÃ³n AM; MartÃnez-Lage A; Rego I; AusiÃ³ J; MÃ©ndez J, 2000. Vie et Milieu, 47(4):355-365. Resour., 1:239-249. Ecol., 219:205-216. Cisneros R; Fernandez E; Bautista J, 1995. Clabby C; Goswami U; Flavin F; Wilkins NP; Houghton JA; Powell R, 1996. Although highly variable, the invasiveness pattern of C. gigas has been demonstrated in several countries and it is therefore considered as a pest or a noxious species in such areas (Ashton, 2001; Blake, 2001; Orensanz et al., 2002). Carlton JT, 1999. Inst. I. Ostrea Edulis–European Flats. Pacific oyster larvae often attach themselves to the shells of adult oysters, where they will grow together to form large oyster reefs. Soc. Enzyme polymorphism and population structure of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas. Marine Bioinvasions Conference. Shellfish culture as a vector for biological invasions. Alvarez JC, 1991.  Pacific oyster females are very fecund, and individuals of 70-100 g live weight can produce 50-80 million eggs in a single spawn. Two rare alleles in New Zealand Pacific oysters have been recorded previously only in the rock oyster, Saccostrea glomerata. Aquaculture â98 Book of Abstracts, 235 pp. Pathology, management and diagnosis of oyster velar virus disease (OVVD). Productivity of the Pacific oyster can be described as the amount of meat produced in relation to the amount of seed planted on cultch. Fixation, segregation and linkage of allozyme loci in inbred families of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg): implications for the causes of inbreeding depression.
2020 pacific oyster scientific name