However, when the first hot Jupiters were discovered, their existence seemed inconsistent with the nebular theory because this theory predicts that _____. According to nebular theory, planetesimals formed by accretion, with the primordial … But according to Marcy, theory has implications not born out in reality. Hint 1. condensation theory - based on evolutionary processes the preferred scientific model for the formation of the Solar System add effects of interstellar dust to the nebular theory No modifications need to be made to the Nebular Theory In particular, observations of transiting hot Jupiters have revealed that their radii often exceed that of Jupiter by significant fraction. Most of us who read up on extrasolar planets know of the theory of epistellar planets that involves a gas giant forming further from its host star and being drawn into a closer orbit, likely via braking from the surrounding nebular material early in its solar system's history (did I describe that right?). Artist's impression of HD 188753 b, a hot Jupiter. Hot Jupiters In Classical Nebular Theory, suggested years ago by Kant, the solar system is formed by a swirling mass of gas coalescing over time. Why did this hypothesis gain favor over alternative ideas? The nebular theory says that the inner planets are rocky because rocks and metals condense at high temperatures, while the outer planets are mostly gaseous because hydrogen compounds condense at lower temperatures, thus farther from the Sun. • The discovery of hot Jupiters has forced a reexamination of the nebular theory. Hot Jupiters are a class of gas giant exoplanets that are inferred to be physically similar to Jupiter but that have very short orbital periods (P < 10 days). Expert Answer (a) Protoplanetary Disks are collections of gravitationally bound gas and dust where stars and planets are formed. these Hot Jupiters are a result of being captured by their host star. Hot Jupiters are a class of gas giant exoplanets that are inferred to be physically similar to Jupiter but that have very short orbital periods (P < 10 days). Our modern theory of solar system formation—the nebular theory—successfully accounts for all the major features of our own solar system. B) It has been modified to allow for … Immanuel Kant extended Swedenborg's theory further in 1755. 49 … Because gas giants apparently cannot form very close to a star, there are only two reasonable explanations for the existence of hot Jupiters: either (A) everything we thought we knew about gas giant formation is completely wrong, or (B) gas giants' orbits can change, leading the planets to migrate within a system after formation. But then due to interactions with debris gas or other planets and the disk, forces act to … In Batygin & Stevenson (2010) and Batygin et al. Conservation of energy tells you the hot Jupiter must fall deeper into the potential well. Our modern theory of solar system formation—the nebular theory—successfully accounts for all the major features of our own solar system. However, when the first hot Jupiters were discovered, their existence seemed inconsistent with the nebular theory because this theory predicts that _____. Assume that the migration hypothesis is the correct explanation for the hot Jupiters. 46) Discoveries force theory revisions: The discovery of "hot Jupiters" forced scientists to revise the nebular theory of solar system formation. The theory was proposed by Pierre Simon Laplace (1749-1827). nebular theory works Condensation Theory Trouble for the Nebular Theory how the nebular theory doesnt work Dust its important role Condensation Theory how it works Summary Bibli ography 3 So how did our solar system form, and out of what? Why are there no "hot Jupiters" in our own Solar System? (c) How do we reconcile the existence of “hot Jupiters,” which are commonly found around distant stars, with nebular theory? Why did we come to accept Kepler's laws of planetary motion and the idea that Earth really is a planet going around the Sun? Shownotes. Project Description. Revisiting the Nebular Theory • Nebular theory predicts massive Jupiter-like planets should not form inside the frost line (at << 5 AU). Such encounters are quite rare, and the hot, tidally disrupted gases would dissipate rather than condense to planets. The short period means that hot Jupiters are very close to their host stars, usually less than 0.1 AU, one tenth of the distance between the Earth and the Sun. So - > is there a way to fix the nebular theory? Astronomers were surprised by these "hot Jupiters", because theories of planetary formation had indicated that giant planets should only form at large distances from stars. • Planetary migration or gravitational encounters may explain hot Jupiters as well as eccentric Jupiters. C) They formed as gas giants beyond the frost line and then migrated inwards. What makes a model successful? 49 suggests that hot Neptunes may originate from evaporation of hot Jupiters, and thus they may share common origins and evolution history (although note that ref. The nebular hypothesis states that the Solar System had condensed out of an interstellar nebula that had collapsed, with the planets condensing in orbit around the Sun. We cant know exactly, but we can theorize and look for evidence to support these theories. Scattering: You can imagine some multi-body interactions where a soon-to-be hot Jupiter gets close to another object, they interact strongly (compared to the effect of the star), and the other object is pushed away. Since time immemorial, humans have been searching for the answer of how the Universe came to be. The solar nebular theory states that the solar system was derived from a rotating cloud of dust particles and gases. Hot Jupiters were the first exoplanets to be discovered around main sequence stars and astonished us with their close-in orbits. The discovery of 'hot Jupiters' has forced a reexamination of nebular theory. [1] The close proximity to their stars and high surface-atmosphere temperatures resulted in the moniker "hot Jupiters". Which of the following is a consequence of the discovery of hot Jupiters for the nebular theory of solar system formation? Astronomy Cast Episode 2: In Search of Other Worlds – lots of info on the current planet-finding techniques Alexander Wolszczan’s Pulsar Planets page; Pulsar Planets; Discussion on 51 Pegasi’s Planet – adapted from articles published in Sky and Telescope Magazine; The Planet at 51 Peg – Discover Magazine; Hot Jupiter (2011), we proposed a magnetohydrodynamic solution to this problem. Mainstream scientists describe the formation of the solar system according to nebula theory, which explains that the solar system formed from a cloud of gas and dust particles known as nebula. these Hot Jupiters formed by the same process as our solar system. However, it has only been within the past few centuries, with the Scientific Revolution, that the… They are a prime example of how exoplanets have challenged our textbook, solar-system inspired story of how planetary systems form and evolve. The close proximity to their stars and high surface-atmosphere temperatures resulted in the moniker "hot Jupiters". 18- How do we think the “hot Jupiters” around other stars were formed? The theory was invented by Emanuel Swedenborg in 1734. So the theory now is that the Hot Jupiters formed beyond the frost line in the same way that the giant planets are supposed to form, or that we imagine Jupiter in our solar system formed. A separate puzzle pertaining to hot Jupiters concerns their physical size. Our nebular theory of the formation of the Solar System says that planets like Jupier can't form near their star, so how did these "hot Jupiters" come to be as we see them? Originally proposed by Kant and Laplace in the 18th century, it became generally accepted in the 19th century, though a stellar-collision model became popular in the early 20th century. 19- Which of the following is a consequence of the discovery of hot Jupiters for the nebular theory of solar system formation? Really, it’s not “the Earth’s origin story” alone so much as it is the origin story of the whole solar system. The discovery of MANY hot Jupiters around assumed central stars clearly shows the nebular hypothesis to be invalid . Hot Jupiters & Pulsar Planets. A) It has been modified to allow for planets to migrate due to gravitational interactions. The prevailing scientific explanation for the origin of the Earth does a good job of not only explaining the Earth’s formation, but the Sun and all the other planets too. Only violent activity from the newly formed central star can result in HOT Jupiter-sized planets with ‘thick’ atmospheres. In this view, the outer gas giants are only formed in cold regions, while hotter inner worlds are rocky. In theory, other stars with planets should have gotten similar starts. Hot Jupiters are gas giant planets with orbital period less than 10 days. Think of a hypothetical discovery that would force further revisions of the theory of planet formation, and explain why this observation would contradict the theory. The solar system formed about 4.5 billion years ago. Part D Today, the leading hypothesis for the existence of hot Jupiters is that they formed in their outer solar systems and then migrated inward. The Nebular Hypothesis The hypothesis of a Solar Nebula, also known as the Kant-Laplace hypothesis, is currently the most accepted explanation for the origin of the Solar System. How can HOT Jupiters form from a relatively cool accretion disk? many of the planets that have been discovered orbiting other stars are "hot Jupiters", or planets the size of Jupiter but that orbit very close to their stars. Nebular theory. these Hot Jupiters are result of their host stars being cooler and smaller than our Sun and other similar stars.
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